Royal City of Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Its historic centre was inscribed on the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites as the first of its kind in 1978, capital of Poland till the 17th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic and culture with 13 institutions of higher education, numerous theatres, cinemas, museums, galleries, music centres and cabarets. Kraków lies in the southern part of Poland, on the Vistula River (Polish: Wisła), in a valley at the foot of the Carpathian Mountains, 219 meters (719 ft) above sea level; half way between the Jurassic Rock Upland (Polish: Jura Krakowsko-Częstochowska) to the north, and the Tatra Mountains 100 kilometers (62 mi) to the south.The population is ca. 780,000. The climate is mild and continental.